How do I include lines in resolv.conf that won’t get lost on reboot?

It’s probably better to have your DNS server be able to resolve ‘puppet’ to the right address, and either to have your DHCP server hand out the DNS nameserver address and search list or else (if you have static IP addresses) to have something like the following in /etc/network/interfaces.

iface eth0 inet static

But if you do want to do it via the resolvconf configuration files you will want to edit /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/base. In that file, put in your info as you would in resolv.conf.

nameserver 192.168.1.XXX

Then tell resolvconf to regenerate resolv.conf.

sudo resolvconf -u