So, the following we run the commands to set up apache for wordpress.

Download and unzip the WordPress package from:

# wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz


Then extract the package to the apache root directory:

# tar -xzvf latest.tar.gz --directory /var/www/kdoozle

Activate Mod Rewrite.

# sudo a2enmod rewrite

Create vhosts.

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName ipgw.io
    ServerAlias www.ipgw.io
    ServerAdmin webmaster@ipgw.io
    DocumentRoot /var/www/ipgw
 
    <Directory /var/www/ipgw>
        Options -Indexes +FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
    </Directory>
 
    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ipgw.io-error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ipgw.io-access.log combined
</VirtualHost>
 
<VirtualHost *:443>
    ServerAdmin rogerp@local
    ServerName www.ipgw.io
    ServerAlias ipgw.io
    DocumentRoot /var/www/ipgw
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.key
</VirtualHost>
 
<VirtualHost *:443>
    ServerAdmin rogerp@local
    ServerName www.ipgw,io
    ServerAlias ipgw.io
 
    DocumentRoot /var/www/ipgw
 
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.key
</VirtualHost>


After installing it, you will need to restart Apache services with the command:

service apache2 restart

If needed, you will need to edit the config file and find the directive:

AllowOverride None


Change it to:

AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

Create the Database

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE database kdoozle;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.001 sec)

Add user and set up permissions.

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER 'kdoozle'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'sdsrg54yhs';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.032 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON kdoozle.* to 'kdoozle'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'sdsrg54yhs';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.017 sec)

Next, run the installer by loading the website in the browser.

This how-to guide will help you to step by step create and install Self Signed Certificate in Apache server on Linux systems.

Read more
sudo apt-get install openssl          # Debian based systems
sudo yum install mod_ssl openssl      # Redhat / CentOS systems
sudo dnf install mod_ssl openssl      # Fedora 22+ systems

Step 2 – Create Self Signed Certificate (please change to your domain name 🙂
Now create SSL certificate. Change the name “apache” to your site name if you plan on multiple sites. Openssl will ask you for some info about your organization. You can leave most of this blank, but the one important thing you’ll need to fill out is the “Common Name,” which you’ll want to set to your server’s IP address or domain name.

sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/apache.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/apache.crt

Output:

Generating a RSA private key
.............................+++++
......+++++
writing new private key to 'apache.key'
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:US
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:TX
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Austin
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Apache
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:apache.com
Email Address []:user@localhost

We’ll also want to generate a Diffie-Hellman group. This is used for perfect forward secrecy, which generates ephemeral session keys to ensure that past communications cannot be decrypted if the session key is compromised.

sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 4096

Step 3 – Configure Apache to Use Your Self-Signed Certificate
Edit Apache SSL configuration file and edit/update as per following directives.

Add a snipit file.

sudo touch /etc/apache2/conf-available/ssl-params.conf

Add the following:

SSLCipherSuite EECDH+AESGCM:EDH+AESGCM:AES256+EECDH:AES256+EDH
SSLProtocol All -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1
SSLHonorCipherOrder On
Header always set X-Frame-Options DENY
Header always set X-Content-Type-Options nosniff
SSLCompression off
SSLUseStapling on
SSLStaplingCache "shmcb:logs/stapling-cache(150000)"
SSLSessionTickets Off

SSLOpenSSLConfCmd DHParameters "/etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem"

Apache VirtualHost Configuration

<VirtualHost *:80>;
    ServerName ipgw.io
    ServerAlias www.ipgw.io
    ServerAdmin webmaster@ipgw.io
    DocumentRoot /var/www/ipgw

    <Directory /var/www/ipgw>
        Options -Indexes +FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
    </Directory>

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ipgw.io-error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ipgw.io-access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:443>
    ServerAdmin rogerp@local
    ServerName www.ipgw.io
    ServerAlias ipgw.io
    DocumentRoot /var/www/ipgw
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ipgw.io.key
</VirtualHost>

Step 4 – Test config, Enable SSL and Restart Apache

sudo a2enmod ssl
sudo apachectl configtest
sudo systemctl restart apache2       # Debian based systems

Step 5 – Test Website with HTTPS
Finally, open your site in your favorite web browser using https.

https://www.example.com
As we are using a self-signed certificate, you will get a warning message in your browser. You can simply ignore this message.

If you find this helpful, please donate.

Here is a simple lamp install script for CentOS 8.

#!/bin/bash
#update system
dnf update
#install apache
dnf install httpd httpd-tools -y
systemctl enable httpd
systemctl start httpd
systemctl status httpd
#update firewall
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https
firewall-cmd --reload
#install mariadb
dnf install mariadb-server mariadb -y
systemctl start mariadb
systemctl enable mariadb
systemctl status mariadb
mysql_secure_installation
# Install PHP 7 on CentOS 8
dnf install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm
#dnf install dnf-utils http://rpms.remirepo.net/enterprise/remi-release-8.rpm
#dnf module list php
dnf install php php-opcache php-gd php-curl php-mysqlnd -y
systemctl start php-fpm
systemctl enable php-fpm
systemctl status php-fpm
setsebool -P httpd_execmem 1
systemctl restart httpd

Check the installation

# nano /var/www/html/info.php

Insert the PHP code below and save the file.


[/bash]
Then head out to your browser, and type the URL below. Remember to replace the server IP address with your server’s actual IP address.

http://server-ip-address/info.php

How to test apache.

Create 2 files:
testload.php
test.php

Create a php file testload.php that checks the existence of another file named test.php in the same directory of two CentOS 7 servers with the same hardware characteristics and load but with different MPM. One of them will use event and the other one will use prefork.

<!--?php $filename = 'test.php'; if (file_exists($filename)) { echo "The file $filename exists"; } else { echo "The file $filename does not exist"; } ?-->

With ab, we will sent 50 (-c 50) concurrent requests at the same time and repeat the test 1000000 times

# ab -c 50 -n 100000 http://localhost/testload.php

200 simultaneous requests until 2000 requests are completed:

# ab -k -c 100 -n 2000 localhost/testload.php

Another test to localhost
PREFORK

]# ab -c 50 -n 100000 http://localhost/index.html
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 <$Revision: 1430300 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 10000 requests
Completed 20000 requests
Completed 30000 requests
^C

Server Software:        Apache/2.4.6
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /index.html
Document Length:        15167 bytes

Concurrency Level:      50
Time taken for tests:   3596.808 seconds
Complete requests:      34570
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Non-2xx responses:      34571
Total transferred:      537122767 bytes
HTML transferred:       524331497 bytes
Requests per second:    9.61 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       5202.210 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       104.044 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          145.83 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    0   0.1      0       3
Processing:   213 5198 241.5   5203   10154
Waiting:      174 4428 227.6   4435    9302
Total:        214 5198 241.5   5203   10154

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   5203
  66%   5264
  75%   5302
  80%   5327
  90%   5391
  95%   5449
  98%   5532
  99%   5617
 100%  10154 (longest request)

The Apache mod_status module is something that can be very useful when troubleshooting high CPU or Memory usage with Apache.

Taken it directly from the Apache documentation:

– The number of worker serving requests.
– The number of idle worker.
– The status of each worker, the number of requests that worker has performed and the total number of bytes served by the worker.
– A total number of accesses and byte count served.
– The time the server was started/restarted and the time it has been running for.
– Averages giving the number of requests per second, the number of bytes served per second and the average number of bytes per request.
– The current percentage CPU used by each worker and in total by all workers combined.
– The current hosts and requests being processed.

Setting it up is simple.


# CentOS 6 / CentOS 7
[root@web01 ~]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/status.conf


# Ubuntu 12.04
[root@web01 ~]# vim /etc/apache2/conf.d/status.conf
# Ubuntu 14.04
[root@web01 ~]# vim /etc/apache2/conf-available/status.conf

Using the correct location for your distro use the following configuration to enable mod_status. Update the AuthUserFile line accordingly for your distro:


<IfModule mod_status.c>
#
# ExtendedStatus controls whether Apache will generate "full" status
# information (ExtendedStatus On) or just basic information (ExtendedStatus
# Off) when the "server-status" handler is called. The default is Off.
#
ExtendedStatus On

# Allow server status reports generated by mod_status,
# with the URL of http://servername/server-status
# Uncomment and change the ".example.com" to allow
# access from other hosts.
#
<Location /server-status>
     SetHandler server-status
     Order deny,allow
     Deny from all
     Allow from localhost ip6-localhost
     <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
          RewriteEngine off
     </IfModule>
     Allow from 127.0.0.1

# On CentOS / RedHat systems, uncomment the following line
     AuthUserFile /etc/httpd/status-htpasswd

# On Debian / Ubuntu systems, uncomment the following line
#     AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/status-htpasswd

     AuthName "Password protected"
     AuthType Basic
     Require valid-user

     # Allow password-less access for allowed IPs
     Satisfy any
</Location>

</IfModule>

Once you have the configuration in place, you can secure it with a username and password:


# CentOS 6 / CentOS 7
[root@web01 ~]# htpasswd -c /etc/httpd/status-htpasswd serverinfo
[root@web01 ~]# service httpd restart




# Ubuntu 12.04
[root@web01 ~]# htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/status-htpasswd serverinfo
[root@web01 ~]# service apache2 restart



# Ubuntu 14.04
[root@web01 ~]# htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/status-htpasswd serverinfo
[root@web01 ~]# a2enconf status.conf
[root@web01 ~]# service apache2 restart

Now go to:


http://serverip/server-status

You can have the /server-status page refresh automatically by using the following in the URL:


http://serverip/server-status?refresh=2

It may give you some idea of what client, or what types of requests, are causing the resource contention issues. Usually it is a specific web application misbehaving, or a specific client is attacking a site.

CentOS 6

# yum install php-xcache xcache-admin

Debian/Ubuntu/Linux Mint


# apt-get install php5-xcache

Configure

RHEL/CentOS/Fedora


# nano /etc/php.d/xcache.ini

Debian/Ubuntu/Linux Mint


# nano /etc/php5/conf.d/xcache.ini

OR

# nano /etc/php5/mods-available/xcache.ini

once you’re done with configuration settings, restart your Apache web server.



# /etc/init.d/httpd restart


# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Verify

# php -v

Enabling XCache Admin Panel for PHP

By default the admin panel is protected with http-auth and in disabled state. To set user/password open the Xcache.ini file. But, first you have to create md5 password using following command. (Where typeyourpassword is your password).


# echo -n "typeyourpassword" | md5sum

Sample Output


ae9ac3f19ae3990b2c99701061c5d8c2

Now open Xcache.ini file add the generated md5 password. See the following example, add your own password md5 string.


[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.enable_auth = On
; Configure this to use admin pages
xcache.admin.user = "mOo"
; xcache.admin.pass = md5($your_password)
xcache.admin.pass = "ae9ac3f19ae3990b2c99701061c5d8c2"

The simplest way to do so is copying the whole directory xcache (admin was in older release) to your web root directory (i.e. /var/www/html or /var/www).


# cp -a /usr/share/xcache/ /var/www/html/

OR


# cp -a /usr/share/xcache/htdocs /var/www/xcache

OR


cp -a /usr/share/xcache/admin/ /var/www/ (older release)

Now call it from your browser, a http-auth login prompt window will pop-up. Enter your user/pass in, and it’s done.

http://localhost/xcache OR http://localhost/admin (older release)