To change permissions using find command.

On a Linux server, if you are in need of changing the permissions of a bulk amount of files or directories recursively, we can use the ‘find’ command to do it. The steps are explained below:

Change to the directory in which you need to change the permissions.

cd /home/user/public_html

Changing Files

The permission changes are different based on the situation we are having. If you need to change the permissions of all files inside the directory to 644 recursively, please use the following:

find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

You can specify a specific directory in the following way as well:

find /home/abc/ -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;


If you are looking to change the permissions of directories inside the current folder to 755, use the following:

find /home/abc/ -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

If you are looking to change the permissions of all files having 777 permissions only to 644, use the following:

find . -type f -perm 777 -exec chmod 644 {} \;

Use the same format for directories by changing the option f:

find . -type d-perm 777 -exec chmod 755 {} \;

You can also change permission using xargs command to do this quickly.

find . -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 755
find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644

An authoritative nameserver is a DNS (Domain Name System) server that contains the original source of information for a particular domain name. This server is considered as the ultimate or official source of DNS information for the domain and is responsible for providing the correct IP address or other DNS record information associated with the domain. When a DNS query is made for a domain name, the authoritative nameserver for that domain is queried to obtain the corresponding DNS information.

Read More



LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/Python) is an acronym denoting one of the most common software stacks for many of the web’s most popular applications.


LEMP is an open-source web application stack used to develop web applications. The term LEMP is an acronym that represents L for the Linux Operating system, Nginx (pronounced as engine-x, hence the E in the acronym) web server, M for MySQL database, and P for PHP scripting language.


WAMP (“Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP”) is an application server platform. WAMP is an acronym that stands for Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. It’s a software stack which means installing WAMP installs Apache, MySQL, and PHP on your operating system (Windows in the case of WAMP)


The acronym WIMP is a solution stack of software, partially free and open source software, used to run dynamic Web sites on servers. The term WIMP is an acronym that represents Windows, referring to the operating system, IIS, the Web server, MySQL, MS SQL Server or MS Access, the database management system (or database server) and PHP or others, e.g. the Perl, Python, PowerShell programming languages.

The Microsoft Web Platform Installer is a tool to install applications on a WIMP-system.

If you ever set up a new domain hosting or migrate a domain to a new server, you will want to check to make sure that the changes are good before changing the DNS to the new server.

We often get asked this question a lot as in many cases, clients change the DNS before checking to see if there site actually works. This can lead to frustration, downtime and lost revenue and customers.

Read More

Here are the different apps in linux for compressing and archiving files.


Tarball: A tarball is a collection of multiple files in Linux stored as a single file. The term tarball comes from the coal-based sealant used during construction works. A tarball is often simply called a TAR file, which stands for Tape Archive. This is because the TAR filetype was originally created to store data in magnetic tapes.

Gzip: GNU gzip is a file compression algorithm used to compress files. The file extension for gzip is GZ and therefore, you can deduce that any file ending with GZ has been compressed using the gzip algorithm.

TAR.GZ: A TAR.GZ file is a version of a tarball compressed with the gzip algorithm. TAR is the file extension for tarballs, whereas GZ denotes gzip. The TGZ file extension is also used sometimes instead of TAR.GZ.

Bzip2: Similar to gzip, several other file compression algorithms are also available, including bzip2. When you compress a TAR file using bzip2, the output file will have either of the following extensions: TAR.BZ2, TAR.BZ, or simply TBZ.

How to Create TAR and TAR.GZ Files

Using the tar Utility
The basic syntax to create compressed tarballs using the tar command is:

$ sudo tar -cvzf archive filename
$ sudo tar -cvzf archive directory

Note that you need to pass the file extension (TAR or TAR.GZ) in the archive name as follows:

$ sudo tar -cvzf new.tar.gz big-file.txt
$ sudo tar -cvf new.tar big-file.txt

To archive and compress the /Documents directory using tar:

$ sudo tar -cvzf new.tar.gz ~/Documents

You can also compress multiple directories and files by creating a single tarball. To do so:

$ sudo tar -cvzf new.tar.gz ~/Documents ~/Downloads file1.txt file2.txt